Cunningham was reelected each year until TESA evolved into the Texas League of Women Voters in October 1919.
Finnigan canvassed each legislator before the start of the biennial session regarding his position on woman suffrage and, with her colleagues, lobbied effectively enough that the enfranchisement bill fell only two votes short of passage. “Woman Suffrage” from The Handbook of Texas Online, “Collective Power: Women’s Organizations” from the Austin History Center. When the Texas Equal Suffrage Association(TESA) was formed in 1903, Black people were not encouraged to join.
Section 107 related to Copyright and “Fair Use” for Non-Profit educational institutions, which permits the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), to utilize copyrighted materials to further scholarship, education, and inform the public. A group of Texas Women, led by three dressed in white, marched in a suffrage parade under the Texas banner in Washington, D. C., on April 7, 1913.  Annette Finnigan, who had returned to Houston in 1909, also began to form local suffrage groups in 1912. 1915 Opponents of woman suffrage formed the Texas Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage. Page 179. This Image shows the inclusion of women and represents the hard work that people like Minnie Fisher Cunningham put in to be able to give all women then, now, and in the future, the ability to vote.
Unilke the NAWSA (National American Woman Suffrage Association) the NWP participated in what was considered more militant activities such as the picket lines. The Texas branch of the NWP would not sponser militant activities and agitation within the state leading to diminished support of the NWP in Texas.
A With unflagging energy, their members organized events, wrote letters, lobbied legislators, and raised funds in support of their cause, often in defiance of the views of their family members or their communities. 2020 marks the centennial of the series of events that lead to this milestone 1915 – Opponents of woman suffrage formed the Texas Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage. William P. Hobby signs the Texas Woman Suffrage Resolution in a ceremony in the Texas Senate on Feb. 5, 1919.
When the El Paso Colored Woman's Club applied in 1918, the TESA leadership refused to act upon its request, thus denying the group access not only to state but to national membership. , The predecessor of the Texas Equal Suffrage Association was the Texas Equal Rights Association (TERA) which was organized in Dallas in May 1893 by Rebecca Henry Hayes of Galveston.
Font size: The group’s philosophy differed from the more moderate TESA, as it endorsed the national chapter’s “militant” tactics of picketing and occupation.
Their mission achieved, they voted to dissolve and convert the organization into the League of Women Voters of Texas.
 In 1915, the Texas Association of Women's Clubs, which was the umbrella organization of African American women's clubs in Texas, endorsed women's suffrage. Print.  When the United States entered World War I in 1917, TESA used the momentum of patriotism to point out how women contributed to the war effort.  After Texas women were granted the primary vote in March 1918, TESA turned its attention to lobbying its federal representatives to support the Susan B. Anthony amendment to the federal constitution.
 Suffragists in Galveston soon established a similar organization. Most white women in Texas believed that excluding Black women in the movement … After Mary Brackenridge's term, Annette Finnigan was again chosen to lead TESA in 1914. Visit the Texas Women’s History Dedication Page and Leave a Message on the Virtual Dedication Wall in honor or memory of someone important to you and/or a historic Texas woman who inspires you. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.  As the president of TESA, Cunningham was quick to point out that immigrants, especially German Americans, were allowed to vote, but Texas men at war were disenfranchised and their mothers and wives were not able to represent them at the polls through the ballot. There had been some organization and activism in Texas in the late 1800s, but not enough to make suffrage an intriguing topic in the state.
MEXICAN AMERICAN BUSINESS AND PROFESSIONAL WOMEN’S ASSOCIATION, MEXICAN AMERICAN LEGAL DEFENSE AND EDUCATIONAL FUND, SOUTHWEST VOTER REGISTRATION EDUCATION PROJECT, TEXAS ASSOCIATION OPPOSED TO WOMAN SUFFRAGE, ACOSTA,
Virginia Bernhard et al., eds., Southern Women: Histories and Identities (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1992).  When Texas Governor James E. Ferguson, an opponent of women's suffrage, was indicted on various charges including embezzlement in 1917, TESA supported his impeachment. Through the effort of many women throughout the country and throughout the state, women in Texas and all over the nation can vote.
No statewide group promoting woman suffrage had been active since 1895, when TESA's predecessor, the Texas Equal Rights Association , ceased functioning.
 The delegates elected Brackenridge as president.
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