Similarly, the results show that financial incentives for employment and reduction of benevolent bureaucracy should not be used as selling points for basic income. If instead the aim were to make people generally happier, the scheme would have been considered a triumph. Although it's enjoying a resurgence in popularity, the idea isn't new. Adults in a village in western Kenya are being given $22 a month for 12 years, until 2028, while the Italian government is working on introducing a "citizens' income". +358 (0) 2941 911, Coronavirus situ­ation at the University of Helsinki.
"[37], Others argue against the idea of a complete Soviet conquest. The waterway itself did not offer protection, but alongside it, there were ridges up to 10 m (33 ft) high. On 9 March, the Finnish military situation on the Karelian Isthmus was dire as troops were experiencing heavy casualties. Armies fighting in Central Europe had recognised supply and communications centres, which could be easily targeted by armoured vehicle regiments. Not until late January 1940 did the Soviets paint their equipment white and issue snowsuits to their infantry. [212], 1939–1940 war between the Soviet Union and Finland, This article is about the Winter War between the Soviet Union and Finland. The long-awaited results from the two-year basic income experiment have been published. [107], By 6 December, all of the Finnish covering forces had withdrawn to the Mannerheim Line. Most of the Finnish communist elite in the Soviet Union had been executed during the Great Purge, further tarnishing the USSR's image in Finland.

Since the group getting the ‘treatment’, i.e.

The area included Finland's fourth-largest city of Vyborg, much of Finland's industrialised territory, and significant land still held by Finland's military—all in all, 11 percent of the territory and 30 percent of the economic assets of pre-war Finland.

The football livescore in FlashScore football scores service is real time, you don't need to refresh it. Finnish fighters shot down a confirmed 200 Soviet aircraft, while losing 62 of their own. [61][62], Negotiations continued throughout 1938 without results. American historian William R. Trotter asserted that Stalin's objective was to secure Leningrad's flank from a possible German invasion through Finland. 00014 University of Helsinki, Switchboard: The Hanko peninsula was leased to the Soviet Union as a military base for 30 years. [162], Although the Karelian Isthmus front was less active in January than in December, the Soviets increased bombardments, wearing down the defenders and softening their fortifications. As the Finns lacked the necessary heavy artillery equipment and were short of men, they often did not directly attack the mottis they had created; instead, they worked to eliminate only the most dangerous threats. [71][F 10], Molotov claimed that the incident was a Finnish artillery attack and demanded that Finland apologise for the incident and move its forces beyond a line 20–25 km (12–16 mi) away from the border. Those who received basic income during the experiment were able to keep all the extra income from work without having to risk losing one euro of the basic income amount.

At the end of the war the Soviets had 6,541 tanks and 1,691 armoured cars.

This is a major weakness since wellbeing effects are at the core of the global basic income debate. In 1920, Finnish communists based in the USSR attempted to assassinate the former Finnish White Guard Commander-in-Chief, Marshal Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim. Customizable football livescore: Finnish league - Finland + over 1000 other leagues and cups. By the end of December, the Soviets decided to retreat and transfer resources to more critical fronts. If he refused to fight, he would be shot. The chief of staff of the Red Army Boris Shaposhnikov advocated a fuller build-up, extensive fire support and logistical preparations, and a rational order of battle, and the deployment of the army's best units. [111], The winter of 1939–40 was exceptionally cold with the Karelian Isthmus experiencing a record low temperature of −43 °C (−45 °F) on 16 January 1940. Another popular variation is 'universal basic services' - where instead of getting an income, things like education, healthcare and transport are free for all. Almost 100 aeroplanes were used for flight training purposes, not suitable for combat, or under repair. Zhdanov's military commander Kirill Meretskov reported that "The terrain of coming operations is split by lakes, rivers, swamps, and is almost entirely covered by forests [...] The proper use of our forces will be difficult." This means that income acquired from work is deducted from government-sponsored benefits. Supporters of basic income often believe an unconditional safety net can help people out of poverty, by giving them the time to apply for jobs or learn essential new skills. Latvia and Lithuania followed in October. The government was also not primarily interested in improving the wellbeing of unemployment benefit claimants. Molotov cocktails were eventually mass-produced by the Finnish Alko alcoholic-beverage corporation and bundled with matches with which to light them. Special forces 'dealing with tanker incident'. The main battlefield was the Karelian Isthmus where the Soviets deployed 1,450 tanks. Did it help unemployed people in Finland find jobs, as the centre-right Finnish government had hoped? World War II, which had started before the Winter War, proved more costly for the Finnish merchant vessels, with 26 lost due to hostile action in 1939 and 1940. "[175], The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed in Moscow on 12 March 1940. The League of Nations deemed the attack illegal and expelled the Soviet Union from the organisation. Unit commanders were overseen by political commissars, whose approval was needed to ratify military decisions and who evaluated those decisions based on their political merits. Heikki Hiilamo, Professor of Social Policy at the University of Helsinki, comments on the results. Finland ceded 11 percent of its territory, representing 30 percent of its economy, to the Soviet Union. [153], There was little naval activity during the Winter War. [19] In 1991, Yuri Kilin claimed 63,990 dead and total casualties of 271,528. Did Finland's basic income experiment work?

(Yliopistonkatu 3) [157], The first naval battle occurred in the Gulf of Finland on 1 December, near the island of Russarö, 5 km (3.1 mi) south of Hanko.

[149] No attacks on civilian targets were mentioned in Soviet radio or newspaper reports. By 22 December, the battle ended in a Finnish victory.

The capital was bombed only a few times thereafter. German representatives, not aware that the negotiations were underway, suggested on 17 February that Finland negotiate with the Soviet Union. He stated that "the strongest argument" against a Soviet intention of full conquest is that it did not happen in either 1939 or during the Continuation War in 1944—even though Stalin "could have done so with comparative ease". [188] The matter was raised by British Admiral Reginald Plunkett on 18 September 1939, and the next day Winston Churchill brought up the subject in the Chamberlain War Cabinet. Then, the Allies would ask Norway and Sweden for permission to move the "volunteers" across their territory. [142] On 11 December, the Finns rearranged the defence of Lapland and detached the Lapland Group from the North Finland Group.

The Battle of Taipale began with a forty-hour Soviet artillery preparation. The rest of the unemployed in Finland who receive a flat rate unemployment benefit, formed the control group. The Soviets deployed a division for almost every road leading west to the Finnish border. [128] Captain Aarne Juutilainen, dubbed "the Terror of Morocco", also became a living legend in the Battle of Kollaa. The Finns remained in their trenches, allowing the Soviet tanks to move freely behind the Finnish line, as the Finns had no proper anti-tank weapons. [65] The Soviet delegation demanded that the border between the USSR and Finland on the Karelian Isthmus be moved westward to a point only 30 km (19 mi) east of Vyborg (Finnish: Viipuri) and that Finland destroy all existing fortifications on the Karelian Isthmus. Despite these defensive preparations, even the most fortified section of the Mannerheim Line had only one reinforced-concrete bunker per kilometre. [113] The cold, snow, forest, and long hours of darkness were factors that the Finns could use to their advantage. [204], During the period between the Winter War and perestroika in the late 1980s, Soviet historiography relied solely on Vyacheslav Molotov's speeches on the Winter War. Nevertheless, the Government of Sweden carefully avoided committing itself to Finnish foreign policy. The Soviet 44th and parts of the 163rd Rifle Division, comprising about 14,000 troops,[138] were almost completely destroyed by a Finnish ambush as they marched along the forest road. Two sets of fortress artillery made significant contributions to the early battles on the Karelian Isthmus and in Ladoga Karelia. All Soviet forces on the Karelian Isthmus were divided into two armies: the 7th and the 13th Army. [100] At 18 January, Finnish armed icebreaker Tarmo was severely damaged at Kotka, received 2 bombs from a Soviet bomber with 39 Finnish troops killed in action. [158], Coastal artillery had a greater effect on land by reinforcing defence in conjunction with army artillery. Old-fashioned and few in number, aircraft offered little support for Finnish ground troops. The Red Army had been humiliated.
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This is seen as increasingly important in the age of automation - that is, put very simply, as robots take people's jobs. [66][67], On 5 October 1939, the Soviet Union invited a Finnish delegation to Moscow for negotiations. The material damage by the bomb raids was slight as Finland offered few valuable targets for strategic bombing. [98][99] The Finnish statesman J. K. Paasikivi commented that the Soviet attack without a declaration of war violated three separate non-aggression pacts: the Treaty of Tartu signed in 1920, the non-aggression pact between Finland and the Soviet Union signed in 1932 and again in 1934, and also the Covenant of the League of Nations, which the Soviet Union signed in 1934. [140] The Finnish troops captured dozens of tanks, artillery pieces, anti-tank guns, hundreds of trucks, almost 2,000 horses, thousands of rifles, and much-needed ammunition and medical supplies.

The terrain on the Karelian Isthmus did not allow guerrilla tactics, so the Finns were forced to resort to the more conventional Mannerheim Line, with its flanks protected by large bodies of water. [23], In battles from Ladoga Karelia to the Arctic port of Petsamo, the Finns used guerrilla tactics. Assault troops thought necessary for the invasion did not begin deployment until October 1939. For a film based on the novel by Antti Tuuri, see, Shelling of Mainila and Soviet intentions, Start of the invasion and political operations, First battles and Soviet advance to the Mannerheim Line, Red Army reforms and offensive preparations, At the beginning of the war, the Finns had 300,000 soldiers.
[94], Finland had a large force of reservists, trained in regular maneuvers, some of which had experience from the recent civil war. [17] Air raids killed 957 civilians. A Swedish unit of Gloster Gladiator fighters, named "the Flight Regiment 19" also participated. From his point of view, "this is not a failure or success - it is a fact, and [gives us] new information that we did not have before this experiment". Finland also received Petsamo, with its ice-free harbour on the Arctic Ocean. In the battle of Petsamo, the Soviet 104th Division attacked the Finnish 104th Independent Cover Company. Video, Malcolm X: From civil rights to Smethwick, Swimming with sharks at Bondi Beach. "[88] Waging Blitzkrieg in Finland was a highly difficult proposition, and according to Trotter, the Red Army failed to meet the level of tactical co-ordination and local initiative required to execute Blitzkrieg tactics in the Finnish theatre. Meaningful international support was minimal and arrived late, and the German blockade had prevented most armament shipments.

Similarly, the results show that financial incentives for employment and reduction of benevolent bureaucracy should not be used as selling points for basic income. If instead the aim were to make people generally happier, the scheme would have been considered a triumph. Although it's enjoying a resurgence in popularity, the idea isn't new. Adults in a village in western Kenya are being given $22 a month for 12 years, until 2028, while the Italian government is working on introducing a "citizens' income". +358 (0) 2941 911, Coronavirus situ­ation at the University of Helsinki.
"[37], Others argue against the idea of a complete Soviet conquest. The waterway itself did not offer protection, but alongside it, there were ridges up to 10 m (33 ft) high. On 9 March, the Finnish military situation on the Karelian Isthmus was dire as troops were experiencing heavy casualties. Armies fighting in Central Europe had recognised supply and communications centres, which could be easily targeted by armoured vehicle regiments. Not until late January 1940 did the Soviets paint their equipment white and issue snowsuits to their infantry. [212], 1939–1940 war between the Soviet Union and Finland, This article is about the Winter War between the Soviet Union and Finland. The long-awaited results from the two-year basic income experiment have been published. [107], By 6 December, all of the Finnish covering forces had withdrawn to the Mannerheim Line. Most of the Finnish communist elite in the Soviet Union had been executed during the Great Purge, further tarnishing the USSR's image in Finland.

Since the group getting the ‘treatment’, i.e.

The area included Finland's fourth-largest city of Vyborg, much of Finland's industrialised territory, and significant land still held by Finland's military—all in all, 11 percent of the territory and 30 percent of the economic assets of pre-war Finland.

The football livescore in FlashScore football scores service is real time, you don't need to refresh it. Finnish fighters shot down a confirmed 200 Soviet aircraft, while losing 62 of their own. [61][62], Negotiations continued throughout 1938 without results. American historian William R. Trotter asserted that Stalin's objective was to secure Leningrad's flank from a possible German invasion through Finland. 00014 University of Helsinki, Switchboard: The Hanko peninsula was leased to the Soviet Union as a military base for 30 years. [162], Although the Karelian Isthmus front was less active in January than in December, the Soviets increased bombardments, wearing down the defenders and softening their fortifications. As the Finns lacked the necessary heavy artillery equipment and were short of men, they often did not directly attack the mottis they had created; instead, they worked to eliminate only the most dangerous threats. [71][F 10], Molotov claimed that the incident was a Finnish artillery attack and demanded that Finland apologise for the incident and move its forces beyond a line 20–25 km (12–16 mi) away from the border. Those who received basic income during the experiment were able to keep all the extra income from work without having to risk losing one euro of the basic income amount.

At the end of the war the Soviets had 6,541 tanks and 1,691 armoured cars.

This is a major weakness since wellbeing effects are at the core of the global basic income debate. In 1920, Finnish communists based in the USSR attempted to assassinate the former Finnish White Guard Commander-in-Chief, Marshal Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim. Customizable football livescore: Finnish league - Finland + over 1000 other leagues and cups. By the end of December, the Soviets decided to retreat and transfer resources to more critical fronts. If he refused to fight, he would be shot. The chief of staff of the Red Army Boris Shaposhnikov advocated a fuller build-up, extensive fire support and logistical preparations, and a rational order of battle, and the deployment of the army's best units. [111], The winter of 1939–40 was exceptionally cold with the Karelian Isthmus experiencing a record low temperature of −43 °C (−45 °F) on 16 January 1940. Another popular variation is 'universal basic services' - where instead of getting an income, things like education, healthcare and transport are free for all. Almost 100 aeroplanes were used for flight training purposes, not suitable for combat, or under repair. Zhdanov's military commander Kirill Meretskov reported that "The terrain of coming operations is split by lakes, rivers, swamps, and is almost entirely covered by forests [...] The proper use of our forces will be difficult." This means that income acquired from work is deducted from government-sponsored benefits. Supporters of basic income often believe an unconditional safety net can help people out of poverty, by giving them the time to apply for jobs or learn essential new skills. Latvia and Lithuania followed in October. The government was also not primarily interested in improving the wellbeing of unemployment benefit claimants. Molotov cocktails were eventually mass-produced by the Finnish Alko alcoholic-beverage corporation and bundled with matches with which to light them. Special forces 'dealing with tanker incident'. The main battlefield was the Karelian Isthmus where the Soviets deployed 1,450 tanks. Did it help unemployed people in Finland find jobs, as the centre-right Finnish government had hoped? World War II, which had started before the Winter War, proved more costly for the Finnish merchant vessels, with 26 lost due to hostile action in 1939 and 1940. "[175], The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed in Moscow on 12 March 1940. The League of Nations deemed the attack illegal and expelled the Soviet Union from the organisation. Unit commanders were overseen by political commissars, whose approval was needed to ratify military decisions and who evaluated those decisions based on their political merits. Heikki Hiilamo, Professor of Social Policy at the University of Helsinki, comments on the results. Finland ceded 11 percent of its territory, representing 30 percent of its economy, to the Soviet Union. [153], There was little naval activity during the Winter War. [19] In 1991, Yuri Kilin claimed 63,990 dead and total casualties of 271,528. Did Finland's basic income experiment work?

(Yliopistonkatu 3) [157], The first naval battle occurred in the Gulf of Finland on 1 December, near the island of Russarö, 5 km (3.1 mi) south of Hanko.

[149] No attacks on civilian targets were mentioned in Soviet radio or newspaper reports. By 22 December, the battle ended in a Finnish victory.

The capital was bombed only a few times thereafter. German representatives, not aware that the negotiations were underway, suggested on 17 February that Finland negotiate with the Soviet Union. He stated that "the strongest argument" against a Soviet intention of full conquest is that it did not happen in either 1939 or during the Continuation War in 1944—even though Stalin "could have done so with comparative ease". [188] The matter was raised by British Admiral Reginald Plunkett on 18 September 1939, and the next day Winston Churchill brought up the subject in the Chamberlain War Cabinet. Then, the Allies would ask Norway and Sweden for permission to move the "volunteers" across their territory. [142] On 11 December, the Finns rearranged the defence of Lapland and detached the Lapland Group from the North Finland Group.

The Battle of Taipale began with a forty-hour Soviet artillery preparation. The rest of the unemployed in Finland who receive a flat rate unemployment benefit, formed the control group. The Soviets deployed a division for almost every road leading west to the Finnish border. [128] Captain Aarne Juutilainen, dubbed "the Terror of Morocco", also became a living legend in the Battle of Kollaa. The Finns remained in their trenches, allowing the Soviet tanks to move freely behind the Finnish line, as the Finns had no proper anti-tank weapons. [65] The Soviet delegation demanded that the border between the USSR and Finland on the Karelian Isthmus be moved westward to a point only 30 km (19 mi) east of Vyborg (Finnish: Viipuri) and that Finland destroy all existing fortifications on the Karelian Isthmus. Despite these defensive preparations, even the most fortified section of the Mannerheim Line had only one reinforced-concrete bunker per kilometre. [113] The cold, snow, forest, and long hours of darkness were factors that the Finns could use to their advantage. [204], During the period between the Winter War and perestroika in the late 1980s, Soviet historiography relied solely on Vyacheslav Molotov's speeches on the Winter War. Nevertheless, the Government of Sweden carefully avoided committing itself to Finnish foreign policy. The Soviet 44th and parts of the 163rd Rifle Division, comprising about 14,000 troops,[138] were almost completely destroyed by a Finnish ambush as they marched along the forest road. Two sets of fortress artillery made significant contributions to the early battles on the Karelian Isthmus and in Ladoga Karelia. All Soviet forces on the Karelian Isthmus were divided into two armies: the 7th and the 13th Army. [100] At 18 January, Finnish armed icebreaker Tarmo was severely damaged at Kotka, received 2 bombs from a Soviet bomber with 39 Finnish troops killed in action. [158], Coastal artillery had a greater effect on land by reinforcing defence in conjunction with army artillery. Old-fashioned and few in number, aircraft offered little support for Finnish ground troops. The Red Army had been humiliated.

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